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中国输欧茶叶大范围出现新型污染物

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年04月19日 15:37:22
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(  【贺)(涛)(/文)(】
  持)(久)(性)(的)(有)(毒)(物)(质)(高)(氯)(酸)(盐)(正)(在)(威)(胁)(中)(国)(的)(茶)(叶)(出)(口)(贸)(易)(,这)(个)(新)(的)(污)(染)(物)(如)(何)(进)(入)(茶)(叶)(的)(,目)(前)(还)(没)(有)(科)(学)(结)(论)(。
  欧)(盟)(正)(在)(酝)(酿)(一)(项)(针)(对)(来)(自)(中)(国)(茶)(叶)(的)(强)(制)(性)(标)(准)(,即)(规)(定)(茶)(叶)(中)(高)(氯)(酸)(盐)(的)(含)(量)(应)(在)(合)(理)(限)(值)(之)(下)(。
  宁)(波)(一)(家)(检)(测)(服)(务)(公)(司)(的)(市)(场)(经)(理)(告)(诉)(《财)(经)(》记)(者)(,自)(2015年)(以)(来)(,浙)(江)(茶)(商)(送)(检)(的)(样)(本)(中)(高)(氯)(酸)(盐)(的)(含)(量)(越)(来)(越)(多)(。
  高)(氯)(酸)(盐)(是)(一)(种)(持)(久)(性)(的)(有)(毒)(物)(质)(。由)(于)(人)(体)(的)(甲)(状)(腺)(会)(吸)(收)(高)(氯)(酸)(盐)(,并)(受)(其)(影)(响)(,减)(少)(对)(碘)(的)(吸)(收)(,进)(而)(扰)(乱)(新)(陈)(代)(谢)(,危)(害)(人)(的)(健)(康)(。欧)(洲)(食)(品)(安)(全)(局)((EFSA)评)(估)(了)(长)(期)(和)(短)(期)(内)(暴)(露)(于)(高)(氯)(酸)(盐)(的)(风)(险)(,结)(果)(表)(明)(,单)(次)(摄)(入)(食)(品)(和)(水)(中)(的)(高)(氯)(酸)(盐)(对)(健)(康)(影)(响)(不)(大)(,但)(是)(长)(期)(摄)(入)(高)(氯)(酸)(盐)(,对)(人)(体)(的)(危)(害)(应)(当)(引)(起)(关)(注)(,尤)(其)(是)(孕)(妇)(、胚)(胎)(、婴)(儿)(最)(容)(易)(受)(到)(危)(害)(。
  上)(述)(检)(测)(服)(务)(公)(司)(市)(场)(经)(理)(称)(,目)(前)(国)(内)(海)(关)(会)(对)(出)(口)(茶)(叶)(进)(行)(抽)(检)(,被)(抽)(检)(到)(的)(茶)(叶)(产)(品)(也)(会)(顺)(带)(检)(测)(高)(氯)(酸)(盐)(的)(含)(量)(,含)(量)(过)(高)(就)(直)(接)(退)(回)(了)(;但)(国)(内)(的)(茶)(叶)(暂)(时)(没)(有)(检)(测)(这)(一)(项)(目)(。
  四)(川)(省)(贸)(促)(会)(的)(一)(份)(情)(况)(通)(报)(显)(示)(,德)(国)(茶)(叶)(协)(会)(曾)(对)(多)(种)(茶)(叶)(样)(本)(进)(行)(检)(测)(,发)(现)(产)(自)(中)(国)(的)(所)(有)(茶)(叶)(样)(本)(中)(都)(含)(有)(高)(氯)(酸)(盐)(,而)(其)(他)(国)(家)(和)(地)(区)(所)(产)(茶)(叶)(中)(尚)(未)(发)(现)(。
  吉)(林)(省)(疾)(病)(预)(防)(控)(制)(中)(心)(主)(任)(技)(师)(刘)(虹)(涛)(认)(为)(,高)(氯)(酸)(盐)(的)(健)(康)(风)(险)(目)(前)(在)(评)(估)(阶)(段)(,尚)(未)(有)(人)(群)(流)(行)(病)(学)(方)(面)(的)(足)(够)(证)(据)(证)(明)(其)(与)(甲)(状)(腺)(疾)(病)(或)(其)(他)(疾)(病)(相)(关)(,公)(众)(不)(必)(对)(饮)(茶)(安)(全)(产)(生)(恐)(慌)(。
  不)(过)(,高)(氯)(酸)(盐)(溶)(解)(度)(高)(、吸)(附)(性)(低)(,流)(动)(扩)(散)(性)(和)(稳)(定)(性)(都)(很)(强)(,并)(可)(在)(自)(然)(环)(境)(中)(持)(久)(存)(在)(,持)(续)(污)(染)(。而)(且)(,茶)(叶)(中)(的)(高)(氯)(酸)(盐)(几)(乎)(全)(部)(都)(能)(溶)(于)(茶)(汤)(当)(中)(,被)(人)(喝)(下)(,其)(残)(留)(问)(题)(很)(值)(得)(关)(注)(。
  高)(氯)(酸)(盐)(污)(染)(的)(主)(要)(来)(源)(是)(航)(空)(航)(天)(、烟)(火)(制)(造)(、军)(火)(工)(业)(、橡)(胶)(制)(品)(、燃)(料)(涂)(料)(等)(。但)(高)(氯)(酸)(盐)(是)(如)(何)(通)(过)(上)(述)(源)(头)(进)(入)(茶)(叶)(的)(,目)(前)(还)(没)(有)(科)(学)(的)(结)(论)(。中)(国)(工)(程)(院)(茶)(界)(唯)(一)(院)(士)(、国)(际)(茶)(叶)(协)(会)(副)(主)(席)(陈)(宗)(懋)(告)(诉)(《财)(经)(》记)(者)(,“这)(是)(新)(的)(东)(西)((污)(染)(物)(),还)(没)(搞)(清)(楚)(。”
  业)(内)(专)(家)(推)(测)(,茶)(树)(种)(植)(过)(程)(中)(使)(用)(的)(化)(学)(肥)(料)(、灌)(溉)(用)(水)(、工)(业)(废)(水)(或)(者)(自)(来)(水)(,食)(品)(加)(工)(过)(程)(中)(含)(氯)(消)(毒)(剂)(的)(使)(用)(以)(及)(包)(装)(材)(料)(的)(迁)(移)(,都)(可)(能)(成)(为)(茶)(叶)(高)(氯)(酸)(盐)(的)(污)(染)(来)(源)(。
  中)(国)(农)(业)(科)(学)(院)(茶)(叶)(研)(究)(所)(研)(究)(员)(刘)(新)(告)(诉)(《财)(经)(》记)(者)(,实)(际)(上)(,茶)(叶)(的)(种)(植)(环)(节)(不)(会)(用)(到)(高)(氯)(酸)(盐)(。究)(竟)(是)(那)(个)(环)(节)(掺)(入)(的)(,还)(需)(要)(研)(究)(破)(解)(。
  1997年)(,美)(国)(在)(加)(州)(饮)(用)(水)(中)(监)(测)(到)(较)(高)(含)(量)(的)(高)(氯)(酸)(根)(存)(在)(后)(,高)(氯)(酸)(盐)(就)(立)(刻)(成)(为)(美)(国)(环)(境)(污)(染)(研)(究)(的)(热)(点)(。目)(前)(有)(关)(高)(氯)(酸)(盐)(的)(人)(群)(研)(究)(主)(要)(以)(美)(国)(为)(主)(,中)(国)(则)(为)(空)(白)(。
  欧)(盟)(已)(考)(虑)(把)(食)(品)(中)(的)(高)(氯)(酸)(限)(量)(定)(在)(0.75毫)(克)(每)(公)(斤)(。上)(述)(四)(川)(省)(贸)(促)(会)(的)(情)(况)(通)(报)(中)(分)(析)(称)(,一)(旦)(该)(标)(准)(制)(定)(实)(施)(,对)(欧)(盟)(的)(茶)(叶)(出)(口)(将)(严)(重)(受)(阻)(。2014年)(,中)(国)(对)(欧)(盟)(国)(家)(出)(口)(茶)(叶)(金)(额)(超)(过)(1亿)(美)(元)(。
  现)(在)(茶)(叶)(出)(口)(商)(很)(紧)(张)(,如)(果)(欧)(盟)(通)(过)(高)(氯)(酸)(盐)(残)(留)(标)(准)(,可)(能)(会)(对)(自)(己)(的)(生)(意)(造)(成)(影)(响)(。
  更)(严)(重)(的)(问)(题)(在)(于)(,这)(一)(拟)(定)(中)(的)(标)(准)(可)(能)(进)(一)(步)(收)(紧)(。欧)(洲)(食)(品)(安)(全)(局)((EFSA)生)(物)(危)(害)(与)(污)(染)(研)(究)(部)(食)(物)(污)(染)(专)(题)(负)(责)(人)(马)(可)(·比)(纳)(里)(亚)(曾)(表)(示)(,EFSA在)(评)(估)(报)(告)(中)(建)(议)(茶)(叶)(中)(高)(氯)(酸)(盐)(含)(量)(是)(0.55—0.58毫)(克)(/公)(斤)(,拟)(发)(布)(的)(0.75毫)(克)(/公)(斤)(的)(标)(准)(较)(为)(宽)(松)(。
  欧)(盟)(将)(在)(综)(合)(考)(虑)(各)(方)(科)(学)(意)(见)(后)(,公)(布)(正)(式)(适)(合)(欧)(盟)(全)(境)(的)(检)(测)(标)(准)(,预)(计)(强)(制)(性)(标)(准)(将)(于)(2016年)(正)(式)(颁)(布)(。
  中)(国)(国)(际)(贸)(易)(促)(进)(委)(员)(会)(的)(法)(律)(事)(务)(部)(负)(责)(应)(对)(此)(事)(,2015年)(12月)(29日)(,专)(门)(举)(办)(了)(“欧)(盟)(制)(定)(茶)(叶)(高)(氯)(酸)(含)(量)(标)(准)(”应)(对)(工)(作)(汇)(报)(会)(。中)(国)(贸)(促)(会)(副)(会)(长)(尹)(宗)(华)(亦)(在)(2015年)(7月)(底)(率)(团)(访)(问)(欧)(盟)(,专)(门)(就)(欧)(盟)(茶)(叶)(中)(高)(氯)(酸)(盐)(含)(量)(标)(准)(展)(开)(游)(说)(,希)(望)(欧)(方)(从)(促)(进)(中)(欧)(茶)(叶)(贸)(易)(角)(度)(出)(发)(,合)(理)(制)(定)(相)(关)(检)(测)(标)(准)(。
  此)(前)(曾)(有)(成)(功)(先)(例)(。自)(2013年)(下)(半)(年)(起)(,欧)(盟)(逐)(步)(加)(大)(了)(对)(中)(国)(输)(欧)(茶)(叶)(中)(蒽)(醌)(残)(留)(的)(检)(测)(力)(度)(,要)(求)(每)(公)(斤)(茶)(叶)(不)(能)(超)(过)(0.01毫)(克)(的)(“默)(认)(标)(准)(”。
  在)(当)(时)(茶)(叶)(中)(的)(蒽)(醌)(成)(因)(不)(明)(,风)(险)(情)(况)(不)(清)(,检)(测)(技)(术)(也)(不)(成)(熟)(,中)(方)(认)(为)(欧)(盟)(的)(标)(准)(过)(于)(严)(苛)(。随)(即)(,中)(国)(农)(科)(院)(茶)(叶)(研)(究)(所)(开)(展)(茶)(叶)(中)(蒽)(醌)(来)(源)(分)(析)(课)(题)(研)(究)(,质)(检)(总)(局)(、商)(务)(部)(依)(据)(相)(关)(资)(料)(,通)(过)(多)(种)(形)(式)(和)(场)(合)(向)(欧)(方)(提)(出)(交)(涉)(。最)(终)(,蒽)(醌)(限)(量)(标)(准)(提)(高)(到)(了)(每)(公)(斤)(0.02毫)(克)(。
  中)(国)(农)(业)(科)(学)(院)(茶)(叶)(研)(究)(所)(副)(研)(究)(员)(罗)(逢)(健)(表)(示)(,他)(已)(向)(商)(务)(部)(提)(出)(了)(一)(项)(针)(对)(茶)(叶)(中)(高)(氯)(酸)(盐)(来)(源)(的)(研)(究)(申)(请)(,现)(在)(尚)(未)(立)(项)(。
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