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专家谈中国改革深层问题:民众话语权决定成败

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年07月23日 11:53:23
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(孙)(立)(平)(
  改)(革)(的)(深)(层)(问)(题)(
  孙)(立)(平)(清)(华)(大)(学)(社)(会)(学)(系)(教)(授)(,研)(究)(方)(向)(为)(社)(会)(发)(展)(、社)(会)(结)(构)(变)(迁)(等)(,著)(有)(《断)(裂)(》《失)(衡)(》《博)(弈)(》著)(名)(的)(三)(部)(曲)(等)(。
  今)(天)(的)(题)(目)(是)(当)(前)(改)(革)(若)(干)(深)(层)(问)(题)(,但)(是)(说)(句)(老)(实)(话)(也)(不)(是)(深)(层)(问)(题)(,实)(际)(上)(就)(是)(想)(谈)(谈)(几)(个)(令)(人)(困)(惑)(的)(问)(题)(,从)(某)(种)(意)(义)(来)(说)(,现)(在)(可)(以)(说)(是)(改)(革)(开)(放)(三)(十)(年)(来)(,我)(觉)(得)(最)(让)(人)(困)(惑)(的)(一)(个)(时)(期)(。下)(面)(要)(谈)(看)(法)(,其)(实)(也)(是)(我)(的)(困)(惑)(,想)(提)(出)(来)(供)(各)(位)(思)(考)(和)(探)(讨)(。
  过)(去)(三)(十)(年)(改)(革)(的)(历)(史)(分)(段)(
  第)(一)(个)(大)(的)(问)(题)(,我)(们)(究)(竟)(怎)(么)(来)(看)(这)(场)(改)(革)(。其)(实)(从)(前)(年)(夏)(天)(开)(始)(,在)(十)(八)(大)(召)(开)(之)(前)(的)(半)(年)(,当)(时)(我)(就)(开)(始)(讲)(一)(个)(观)(点)(,我)(说)(现)(在)(是)(一)(个)(重)(要)(的)(转)(折)(点)(,现)(在)(是)(新)(的)(三)(十)(年)(的)(开)(端)(。
  看)(今)(天)(这)(场)(改)(革)(,可)(能)(我)(们)(得)(有)(这)(样)(一)(个)(最)(基)(本)(的)(眼)(光)(,得)(放)(在)(这)(样)(的)(一)(个)(历)(史)(脉)(络)(中)(去)(看)(。过)(去)(这)(三)(十)(多)(年)(,我)(们)(将)(它)(称)(为)(改)(革)(开)(放)(的)(时)(期)(,但)(是)(现)(在)(回)(过)(头)(来)(看)(,在)(改)(革)(开)(放)(之)(初)(我)(们)(对)(一)(些)(事)(情)(想)(得)(有)(一)(点)(简)(单)(化)(。大)(家)(想)(所)(谓)(改)(革)(就)(是)(不)(断)(从)(起)(点)(走)(向)(终)(点)(的)(过)(程)(。当)(时)(我)(们)(可)(能)(只)(能)(想)(到)(两)(个)(结)(果)(,一)(种)(就)(是)(成)(功)(,一)(种)(就)(是)(失)(败)(,好)(像)(当)(时)(也)(想)(不)(出)(第)(三)(种)(。其)(实)(还)(有)(一)(种)(可)(能)(性)(,就)(是)(它)(走)(到)(半)(道)(时)(不)(走)(了)(,它)(没)(有)(走)(到)(终)(点)(,但)(是)(也)(没)(有)(回)(到)(起)(点)(,停)(在)(中)(间)(不)(动)(了)(。
  假)(设)(这)(么)(来)(说)(,过)(去)(三)(十)(年)(改)(革)(开)(放)(的)(历)(史)(,我)(觉)(得)(其)(实)(可)(以)(分)(为)(两)(块)(,中)(间)(的)(转)(折)(点)(大)(约)(就)(是)(在)(中)(国)(加)(入)(WTO、体)(改)(委)(取)(消)(并)(入)(发)(改)(委)(,甚)(至)(比)(这)(个)(更)(前)(。前)(面)(这)(十)(几)(年)(的)(时)(间)(,这)(可)(以)(说)(是)(真)(正)(改)(革)(开)(放)(的)(时)(期)(,中)(国)(最)(重)(要)(的)(一)(些)(改)(革)(基)(本)(上)(可)(以)(说)(是)(前)(十)(几)(年)(进)(行)(的)(,包)(括)(后)(来)(改)(革)(的)(一)(些)(最)(基)(本)(的)(思)(路)(,也)(都)(是)(在)(前)(十)(几)(年)(形)(成)(的)(。到)(了)(这)(个)(转)(折)(点)(之)(后)(,实)(质)(性)(的)(改)(革)(措)(施)(其)(实)(已)(经)(越)(来)(越)(少)(了)(。不)(但)(是)(实)(质)(性)(的)(改)(革)(措)(施)(越)(来)(越)(少)(,而)(且)(就)(像)(刚)(才)(所)(说)(的)(,将)(这)(样)(一)(种)(中)(间)(的)(状)(况)(定)(型)(为)(相)(对)(稳)(定)(的)(体)(制)(,权)(力)(和)(市)(场)(结)(合)(在)(一)(起)(。在)(这)(样)(一)(个)(体)(制)(的)(背)(景)(下)(,它)(还)(形)(成)(了)(一)(种)(相)(当)(稳)(定)(的)(利)(益)(格)(局)(,甚)(至)(形)(成)(了)(强)(有)(力)(的)(既)(得)(利)(益)(集)(团)(。
  过)(去)(三)(十)(年)(的)(改)(革)(,其)(实)(是)(可)(以)(分)(为)(这)(样)(的)(两)(段)(,这)(对)(于)(看)(清)(现)(在)(我)(们)(是)(在)(什)(么)(样)(的)(位)(置)(,十)(八)(届)(三)(中)(全)(会)(是)(在)(什)(么)(样)(的)(情)(况)(下)(召)(开)(的)(,全)(会)(的)(改)(革)(决)(定)(对)(中)(国)(意)(味)(着)(什)(么)(,会)(看)(得)(更)(清)(楚)(。现)(在)(我)(们)(可)(以)(说)(就)(是)(在)(中)(间)(这)(个)(地)(方)(,处)(于)(两)(个)(三)(十)(年)(之)(交)(的)(时)(候)(。在)(这)(样)(的)(一)(个)(重)(要)(的)(时)(候)(,十)(八)(届)(三)(中)(全)(会)(做)(了)(一)(个)(决)(定)(,要)(打)(破)(过)(去)(这)(十)(几)(年)(所)(形)(成)(的)(僵)(局)(,将)(社)(会)(的)(变)(革)(继)(续)(向)(前)(推)(进)(。虽)(然)(现)(在)(我)(们)(还)(不)(知)(道)(打)(破)(僵)(局)(,未)(来)(三)(十)(年)(的)(路)(将)(会)(怎)(么)(走)(,是)(什)(么)(样)(的)(,但)(我)(至)(少)(知)(道)(一)(点)(,如)(果)(这)(个)(僵)(局)(不)(被)(打)(破)(的)(话)(会)(是)(什)(么)(样)(子)(—在)(那)(儿)(根)(本)(就)(动)(弹)(不)(了)(。
  反)(腐)(败)(是)(这)(次)(改)(革)(的)(启)(动)(点)(
  我)(们)(这)(次)(改)(革)(和)(上)(一)(轮)(改)(革)(真)(的)(不)(一)(样)(,上)(一)(轮)(改)(革)(是)(面)(对)(着)(改)(革)(之)(前)(三)(十)(年)(形)(成)(的)(一)(套)(旧)(体)(制)(。将)(我)(们)(过)(去)(体)(制)(简)(单)(概)(括)(为)(计)(划)(经)(济)(体)(制)(,这)(是)(不)(对)(的)(,这)(个)(旧)(体)(制)(的)(特)(征)(就)(是)(权)(力)(无)(所)(不)(在)(、权)(力)(控)(制)(一)(切)(,所)(以)(我)(把)(它)(称)(为)(总)(体)(性)(权)(力)(,那)(一)(轮)(改)(革)(只)(是)(首)(先)(从)(计)(划)(经)(济)(这)(个)(地)(方)(打)(开)(缺)(口)(。但)(这)(一)(轮)(改)(革)(不)(一)(样)(,面)(对)(两)(个)(东)(西)(,一)(个)(还)(是)(刚)(才)(所)(说)(的)(前)(三)(十)(年)(形)(成)(的)(旧)(体)(制)(,那)(个)(旧)(体)(制)(在)(过)(去)(三)(十)(年)(的)(改)(革)(当)(中)(并)(没)(有)(真)(正)(得)(到)(破)(除)(,或)(者)(说)(它)(最)(核)(心)(的)(东)(西)(并)(没)(有)(得)(到)(真)(正)(的)(破)(除)(,虽)(然)(从)(计)(划)(经)(济)(这)(一)(块)(上)(撕)(开)(了)(一)(个)(口)(子)(,但)(它)(最)(核)(心)(的)(全)(能)(性)(、总)(体)(性)(的)(权)(力)(并)(没)(有)(得)(到)(根)(本)(的)(触)(动)(。但)(如)(果)(它)(就)(是)(面)(对)(这)(个)(,和)(上)(一)(轮)(的)(改)(革)(没)(有)(什)(么)(差)(别)(,这)(一)(轮)(改)(革)(还)(面)(对)(一)(个)(东)(西)(,这)(就)(是)(形)(成)(的)(新)(的)(弊)(端)(。
  这)(个)(新)(的)(弊)(端)(在)(很)(大)(程)(度)(上)(,是)(在)(破)(除)(过)(去)(三)(十)(年)(旧)(体)(制)(过)(程)(中)(形)(成)(的)(,但)(和)(旧)(体)(制)(又)(不)(完)(全)(一)(样)(,二)(者)(有)(着)(密)(切)(的)(关)(系)(,根)(据)(它)(的)(特)(征)(我)(把)(它)(称)(为)(权)(贵)(。这)(一)(轮)(改)(革)(面)(对)(这)(两)(个)(东)(西)(,概)(括)(来)(说)(它)(面)(对)(一)(个)(旧)(体)(制)(、一)(个)(新)(弊)(端)(。旧)(体)(制)(即)(总)(体)(性)(权)(力)(到)(现)(在)(在)(社)(会)(中)(仍)(然)(顽)(强)(地)(存)(在)(,甚)(至)(又)(在)(这)(个)(过)(程)(中)(添)(加)(了)(市)(场)(经)(济)(,这)(个)(权)(力)(甚)(至)(比)(原)(来)(还)(强)(大)(。在)(这)(样)(的)(背)(景)(下)(,形)(成)(了)(一)(个)(既)(得)(利)(益)(格)(局)(,甚)(至)(形)(成)(了)(一)(个)(既)(得)(利)(益)(集)(团)(。
  在)(过)(去)(这)(十)(几)(年)(的)(时)(间)(里)(,权)(贵)(既)(得)(利)(益)(集)(团)(在)(很)(大)(程)(度)(上)(已)(经)(在)(支)(配)(着)(这)(个)(社)(会)(。这)(个)(既)(得)(利)(益)(集)(团)(从)(过)(去)(十)(几)(二)(十)(年)(的)(情)(况)(当)(中)(来)(看)(,不)(想)(往)(前)(走)(,也)(不)(想)(往)(后)(退)(,就)(想)(停)(在)(这)(个)(地)(方)(不)(动)(,因)(为)(这)(样)(对)(它)(最)(有)(好)(处)(。现)(在)(最)(现)(实)(的)(,我)(们)(要)(面)(对)(的)(就)(是)(权)(贵)(集)(团)(,不)(破)(掉)(这)(个)(没)(有)(办)(法)(往)(前)(走)(。
  这)(场)(改)(革)(是)(以)(什)(么)(开)(始)(的)(?大)(家)(知)(道)(是)(以)(反)(腐)(败)(开)(始)(的)(。其)(实)(可)(以)(说)(这)(个)(反)(腐)(败)(,按)(照)(官)(方)(的)(预)(期)(远)(远)(没)(有)(达)(到)(。尽)(管)(如)(此)(,我)(个)(人)(认)(为)(将)(反)(腐)(败)(作)(为)(这)(次)(改)(革)(的)(启)(动)(点)(是)(对)(的)(,因)(为)(它)(面)(对)(的)(就)(是)(既)(得)(利)(益)(集)(团)(、权)(贵)(集)(团)(这)(堵)(墙)(。现)(在)(不)(破)(掉)(这)(堵)(墙)(,别)(的)(无)(从)(谈)(起)(。
  我)(觉)(得)(反)(腐)(败)(有)(多)(重)(含)(义)(,从)(不)(同)(的)(含)(义)(来)(说)(,做)(一)(些)(恰)(如)(其)(分)(的)(判)(断)(很)(重)(要)(。反)(腐)(败)(可)(以)(从)(四)(个)(层)(面)(来)(看)(,首)(先)(就)(解)(决)(腐)(败)(问)(题)(本)(身)(来)(说)(,应)(当)(承)(认)(运)(动)(式)(反)(腐)(的)(作)(用)(是)(有)(限)(的)(,靠)(这)(个)(想)(解)(决)(问)(题)(是)(解)(决)(不)(了)(的)(。但)(是)(又)(必)(须)(要)(靠)(反)(腐)(败)(来)(破)(局)(,震)(慑)(的)(作)(用)(是)(明)(显)(的)(,可)(以)(为)(建)(立)(有)(关)(的)(制)(度)(创)(造)(条)(件)(,比)(如)(说)(官)(员)(财)(产)(申)(报)(。第)(二)(,从)(为)(改)(革)(破)(局)(的)(角)(度)(来)(看)(,可)(以)(说)(反)(腐)(败)(现)(在)(已)(经)(搅)(动)(了)(过)(去)(僵)(局)(的)(一)(潭)(死)(水)(。原)(来)(权)(贵)(之)(间)(的)(利)(益)(均)(衡)(,现)(在)(已)(经)(被)(打)(破)(,僵)(局)(开)(始)(出)(现)(松)(动)(,原)(来)(做)(不)(了)(的)(事)(情)(现)(在)(有)(了)(做)(的)(可)(能)(性)(。第)(三)(,这)(场)(反)(腐)(败)(除)(了)(启)(动)(改)(革)(、解)(决)(腐)(败)(问)(题)(,还)(有)(就)(是)(破)(除)(权)(贵)(的)(垄)(断)(。现)(在)(这)(场)(反)(腐)(败)(也)(具)(有)(为)(破)(除)(权)(贵)(垄)(断)(破)(局)(的)(含)(义)(。第)(四)(,执)(政)(者)(肯)(定)(有)(一)(个)(期)(望)(,期)(望)(反)(腐)(能)(够)(起)(到)(凝)(聚)(民)(心)(、强)(化)(政)(权)(基)(础)(的)(作)(用)(,所)(以)(一)(直)(说)(不)(反)(腐)(败)(就)(会)(亡)(党)(亡)(国)(。
  从)(种)(种)(因)(素)(来)(看)(,我)(觉)(得)(这)(个)(反)(腐)(败)(,在)(继)(续)(保)(持)(势)(头)(的)(情)(况)(下)(得)(经)(历)(一)(个)(转)(变)(了)(,这)(样)(才)(能)(使)(反)(腐)(败)(真)(正)(起)(到)(为)(改)(革)(破)(局)(的)(作)(用)(,这)(个)(腐)(败)(本)(身)(也)(可)(以)(向)(前)(推)(进)(。这)(个)(转)(变)(就)(是)(由)(现)(在)(的)(反)(腐)(败)(转)(向)(权)(贵)(弊)(政)(的)(系)(统)(清)(理)(。清)(理)(权)(贵)(弊)(政)(的)(作)(用)(是)(什)(么)(呢)(,就)(是)(为)(权)(力)(设)(一)(个)(底)(线)(,一)(定)(要)(让)(官)(员)(知)(道)(什)(么)(东)(西)(不)(能)(做)(,一)(定)(要)(让)(官)(员)(对)(底)(线)(有)(所)(畏)(惧)(,不)(能)(非)(法)(地)(侵)(犯)(民)(众)(最)(基)(本)(的)(权)(利)(、不)(能)(掠)(夺)(民)(众)(的)(财)(产)(,一)(定)(要)(有)(底)(线)(,保)(证)(这)(个)(底)(线)(的)(就)(是)(法)(治)(。四)(中)(全)(会)(马)(上)(要)(召)(开)(,四)(中)(全)(会)(的)(主)(题)(就)(是)(法)(治)(建)(设)(。如)(果)(这)(样)(的)(话)(,说)(不)(定)(社)(会)(就)(以)(平)(稳)(的)(方)(式)(走)(出)(一)(条)(好)(的)(路)(子)(,这)(个)(社)(会)(就)(有)(往)(前)(走)(的)(通)(道)(了)(。但)(我)(现)(在)(只)(能)(这)(样)(设)(想)(,同)(时)(我)(们)(社)(会)(的)(力)(量)(也)(在)(发)(育)(,人)(们)(应)(当)(努)(力)(朝)(这)(个)(方)(向)(推)(,不)(是)(说)(仅)(仅)(是)(愿)(望)(,而)(是)(每)(一)(个)(人)(其)(实)(都)(有)(这)(样)(的)(责)(任)(。
  改)(革)(的)(前)(景)(和)(空)(间)(
  这)(次)(改)(革)(和)(前)(几)(次)(大)(张)(旗)(鼓)(的)(讲)(改)(革)(不)(一)(样)(了)(,首)(先)(就)(可)(以)(看)(到)(人)(们)(对)(这)(场)(改)(革)(,整)(个)(社)(会)(老)(实)(说)(缺)(乏)(高)(度)(的)(共)(识)(。对)(改)(革)(,可)(以)(说)(现)(在)(没)(有)(高)(度)(的)(共)(识)(,要)(说)(有)(共)(识)(,顶)(多)(就)(是)(一)(条)(,大)(家)(都)(对)(现)(状)(不)(满)(,应)(当)(改)(变)(这)(个)(现)(状)(。但)(再)(往)(下)(,这)(个)(共)(识)(很)(少)(了)(,而)(且)(人)(们)(对)(改)(革)(可)(以)(说)(抱)(有)(一)(种)(很)(深)(的)(不)(信)(任)(和)(疑)(虑)(,其)(中)(很)(重)(要)(的)(一)(点)(,就)(是)(说)(它)(们)(会)(改)(吗)(?医)(生)(会)(给)(自)(己)(做)(手)(术)(吗)(?我)(觉)(得)(这)(是)(现)(在)(整)(个)(中)(国)(社)(会)(最)(大)(的)(心)(结)(。
  我)(现)(在)(要)(说)(一)(个)(理)(论)(问)(题)(,如)(何)(来)(看)(待)(统)(治)(者)(和)(改)(革)(的)(关)(系)(。最)(高)(的)(执)(政)(者)(和)(一)(般)(的)(统)(治)(阶)(级)(是)(什)(么)(样)(的)(关)(系)(?假)(设)(我)(们)(将)(最)(高)(的)(统)(治)(者)(看)(作)(是)(国)(家)(机)(构)(,下)(面)(还)(有)(一)(般)(的)(统)(治)(阶)(级)(或)(是)(既)(得)(利)(益)(集)(团)(,这)(两)(个)(究)(竟)(是)(什)(么)(关)(系)(?什)(么)(是)(国)(家)(最)(高)(执)(政)(者)(,我)(们)(书)(本)(上)(写)(的)(是)(国)(家)(最)(高)(执)(政)(者)(就)(是)(统)(治)(阶)(级)(的)(代)(表)(,代)(表)(的)(就)(是)(统)(治)(阶)(级)(的)(利)(益)(。但)(是)(这)(些)(年)(的)(研)(究)(发)(现)(这)(个)(话)(不)(完)(全)(是)(对)(的)(,国)(家)(最)(高)(统)(治)(者)(和)(统)(治)(阶)(级)(经)(常)(处)(于)(矛)(盾)(当)(中)(,这)(些)(年)(理)(论)(研)(究)(进)(展)(提)(出)(了)(一)(个)(概)(念)(,这)(就)(是)(国)(家)(的)(相)(对)(自)(主)(性)(,最)(高)(统)(治)(者)(有)(自)(己)(独)(立)(的)(利)(益)(和)(独)(立)(的)(目)(标)(,和)(统)(治)(阶)(级)(的)(目)(标)(是)(不)(一)(样)(的)(,而)(且)(经)(常)(处)(于)(矛)(盾)(当)(中)(,为)(什)(么)(矛)(盾)(呢)(?这)(两)(个)(东)(西)(都)(需)(要)(资)(源)(,资)(源)(只)(能)(从)(一)(个)(地)(方)(来)(,就)(是)(从)(老)(百)(姓)(那)(儿)(来)(。
  特)(别)(是)(当)(一)(个)(社)(会)(遇)(到)(危)(机)(的)(时)(候)(,这)(个)(矛)(盾)(就)(会)(更)(加)(突)(出)(。假)(如)(说)(一)(个)(社)(会)(遇)(到)(危)(机)(,这)(个)(国)(家)(当)(时)(最)(主)(要)(的)(目)(标)(就)(是)(得)(自)(保)(,这)(是)(它)(的)(最)(高)(目)(标)(。但)(是)(它)(怎)(么)(保)(住)(自)(己)(呢)(,它)(得)(化)(解)(危)(机)(,化)(解)(危)(机)(就)(需)(要)(资)(源)(,但)(资)(源)(从)(哪)(儿)(来)(呢)(,历)(史)(来)(看)(一)(般)(这)(个)(时)(候)(也)(是)(天)(灾)(人)(祸)(了)(。这)(个)(时)(候)(就)(需)(要)(统)(治)(阶)(级)(拿)(出)(一)(点)(资)(源)(来)(,但)(统)(治)(阶)(级)(谁)(也)(不)(愿)(意)(轻)(易)(让)(出)(资)(源)(。从)(历)(史)(上)(来)(看)(,这)(个)(时)(候)(就)(看)(谁)(更)(强)(了)(,如)(果)(最)(高)(统)(治)(者)(、这)(个)(国)(家)(能)(够)(压)(住)(统)(治)(阶)(级)(让)(出)(一)(部)(分)(的)(资)(源)(,很)(可)(能)(就)(能)(够)(缓)(解)(危)(机)(。但)(如)(果)(压)(不)(住)(,可)(能)(危)(机)(就)(得)(不)(到)(解)(决)(。
  我)(们)(不)(要)(笼)(统)(地)(认)(为)(医)(生)(不)(会)(给)(自)(己)(做)(手)(术)(,这)(个)(过)(程)(当)(中)(,我)(们)(要)(看)(得)(更)(灵)(活)(一)(些)(,也)(就)(是)(说)(变)(革)(的)(可)(能)(性)(应)(当)(说)(是)(有)(的)(。我)(认)(为)(,尽)(管)(社)(会)(力)(量)(在)(生)(长)(,但)(客)(观)(说)(,到)(目)(前)(为)(止)(影)(响)(中)(国)(社)(会)(进)(程)(的)(最)(主)(要)(力)(量)(还)(是)(权)(势)(者)(。如)(果)(是)(这)(样)(的)(话)(,我)(们)(可)(以)(看)(到)(这)(些)(年)(的)(演)(变)(。权)(势)(者)(通)(过)(什)(么)(因)(素)(来)(影)(响)(社)(会)(进)(程)(的)(呢)(?上)(世)(纪)(八)(十)(年)(代)(是)(一)(种)(理)(念)(,那)(个)(时)(候)(的)(一)(代)(领)(导)(人)(,社)(会)(中)(有)(影)(响)(力)(、权)(势)(的)(这)(些)(人)(,当)(时)(有)(一)(个)(朝)(向)(现)(代)(化)(的)(理)(念)(,这)(样)(一)(种)(理)(念)(很)(大)(程)(度)(上)(推)(动)(了)(八)(十)(年)(代)(社)(会)(的)(变)(革)(。但)(从)(九)(十)(年)(代)(开)(始)(到)(现)(在)(这)(二)(十)(年)(,也)(是)(权)(势)(者)(在)(影)(响)(这)(个)(社)(会)(,但)(这)(二)(十)(年)(影)(响)(这)(个)(社)(会)(的)(最)(主)(要)(是)(权)(势)(者)(的)(贪)(婪)(。
  但)(我)(觉)(得)(这)(一)(段)(也)(结)(束)(了)(,不)(是)(说)(它)(不)(会)(贪)(婪)(,但)(它)(会)(有)(比)(贪)(婪)(分)(量)(更)(重)(的)(东)(西)(在)(影)(响)(着)(未)(来)(,这)(就)(是)(他)(们)(的)(恐)(惧)(感)(,就)(是)(他)(们)(的)(不)(安)(全)(感)(。原)(来)(权)(贵)(抱)(团)(的)(那)(段)(时)(间)(,虽)(然)(他)(们)(也)(会)(有)(不)(安)(全)(感)(,但)(是)(主)(要)(是)(来)(自)(外)(部)(。那)(时)(候)(他)(们)(至)(少)(内)(部)(是)(抱)(团)(的)(,你)(关)(照)(我)(、我)(也)(不)(防)(碍)(你)(,大)(家)(共)(同)(维)(护)(既)(得)(利)(益)(。可)(是)(这)(一)(年)(多)(的)(时)(间)(,客)(观)(来)(说)(,反)(腐)(也)(好)(,改)(革)(也)(好)(,将)(这)(些)(东)(西)(打)(破)(了)(。说)(得)(更)(现)(实)(一)(些)(,现)(在)(权)(势)(本)(身)(有)(很)(强)(的)(不)(安)(全)(感)(。
  这)(个)(不)(安)(全)(感)(将)(来)(怎)(么)(处)(理)(,在)(很)(大)(程)(度)(上)(将)(是)(影)(响)(着)(中)(国)(未)(来)(社)(会)(变)(化)(和)(社)(会)(走)(向)(的)(重)(要)(因)(素)(。各)(方)(作)(一)(点)(妥)(协)(,最)(后)(商)(量)(出)(一)(个)(规)(则)(来)(,用)(这)(个)(规)(则)(来)(保)(护)(整)(个)(社)(会)(,包)(括)(他)(们)(自)(己)(的)(安)(全)(感)(。假)(如)(是)(这)(样)(,我)(觉)(得)(是)(社)(会)(变)(革)(的)(现)(实)(契)(机)(,今)(后)(中)(国)(法)(治)(在)(这)(样)(的)(背)(景)(下)(才)(是)(真)(正)(的)(法)(治)(。
  民)(众)(的)(话)(语)(权)(决)(定)(改)(革)(成)(败)(
  这)(场)(改)(革)(缺)(乏)(高)(度)(的)(共)(识)(,其)(实)(还)(不)(仅)(仅)(是)(如)(此)(,这)(场)(改)(革)(老)(实)(说)(条)(件)(不)(是)(很)(好)(,刚)(才)(说)(缺)(少)(整)(个)(社)(会)(的)(共)(识)(,也)(面)(临)(着)(巨)(大)(的)(阻)(力)(,就)(是)(既)(得)(利)(益)(集)(团)(。上)(一)(轮)(改)(革)(虽)(然)(也)(是)(跌)(跌)(撞)(撞)(走)(过)(来)(,而)(且)(不)(同)(程)(度)(有)(不)(同)(的)(提)(法)(,但)(是)(人)(们)(内)(心)(有)(一)(个)(东)(西)(是)(比)(较)(明)(确)(的)(,从)(计)(划)(经)(济)(走)(向)(市)(场)(经)(济)(。但)(这)(一)(轮)(改)(革)(如)(何)(形)(成)(新)(的)(机)(制)(,保)(证)(改)(革)(朝)(着)(正)(确)(的)(方)(向)(走)(,这)(是)(非)(常)(重)(要)(的)(。我)(八)(年)(前)(有)(一)(篇)(文)(章)(当)(时)(讲)(了)(四)(点)(,现)(在)(简)(单)(提)(一)(下)(。
  第)(一)(,需)(要)(一)(种)(对)(改)(革)(进)(行)(综)(合)(协)(调)(的)(高)(层)(次)(的)(机)(构)(。现)(在)(这)(次)(解)(决)(了)(问)(题)(,成)(立)(了)(全)(面)(深)(化)(改)(革)(领)(导)(小)(组)(。第)(二)(,加)(强)(公)(众)(对)(改)(革)(的)(参)(与)(。第)(三)(,适)(时)(地)(转)(变)(改)(革)(推)(进)(的)(策)(略)(。第)(四)(,形)(成)(改)(革)(措)(施)(实)(施)(过)(程)(中)(的)(反)(扭)(曲)(机)(制)(。
  既)(得)(利)(益)(集)(团)(对)(改)(革)(的)(挑)(战)(还)(没)(有)(真)(正)(到)(来)(。这)(几)(年)(我)(们)(都)(在)(讲)(既)(得)(利)(益)(集)(团)(是)(这)(次)(改)(革)(最)(大)(的)(阻)(力)(。但)(在)(改)(革)(的)(启)(动)(上)(,既)(得)(利)(益)(集)(团)(对)(改)(革)(的)(阻)(力)(也)(不)(能)(过)(分)(地)(夸)(大)(化)(,我)(觉)(得)(有)(两)(个)(原)(因)(。这)(次)(上)(面)(启)(动)(改)(革)(的)(策)(略)(是)(对)(的)(,就)(是)(先)(打)(两)(个)(耳)(光)(过)(去)(,先)(打)(得)(它)(晕)(头)(转)(向)(再)(说)(。既)(得)(利)(益)(集)(团)(对)(改)(革)(真)(正)(的)(挑)(战)(是)(在)(什)(么)(时)(候)(呢)(?我)(想)(就)(是)(在)(将)(来)(,是)(在)(改)(革)(启)(动)(之)(后)(,它)(很)(可)(能)(真)(的)(不)(反)(这)(个)(改)(革)(了)(,它)(说)(不)(定)(要)(求)(改)(革)(要)(求)(得)(比)(我)(们)(还)(积)(极)(了)(,因)(为)(它)(看)(到)(机)(会)(了)(,它)(可)(以)(将)(改)(革)(的)(口)(号)(和)(措)(施)(接)(过)(去)(,然)(后)(变)(为)(谋)(取)(不)(正)(当)(利)(益)(的)(机)(会)(,甚)(至)(像)(上)(一)(轮)(改)(革)(最)(后)(那)(一)(段)(时)(间)(,将)(改)(革)(变)(为)(掠)(夺)(社)(会)(财)(富)(和)(民)(众)(财)(富)(的)(过)(程)(。
  建)(立)(新)(机)(制)(,保)(证)(改)(革)(顺)(利)(进)(行)(,这)(是)(非)(常)(重)(要)(的)(。这)(个)(机)(制)(最)(重)(要)(就)(是)(两)(点)(,一)(个)(是)(透)(明)(,一)(个)(是)(民)(众)(的)(参)(与)(。透)(明)(不)(用)(多)(说)(了)(,在)(一)(个)(利)(益)(的)(时)(代)(没)(有)(民)(众)(的)(参)(与)(,改)(革)(要)(想)(不)(出)(问)(题)(很)(难)(。这)(一)(轮)(改)(革)(中)(能)(不)(能)(建)(立)(机)(制)(,保)(证)(民)(众)(的)(参)(与)(,保)(证)(老)(百)(姓)(在)(改)(革)(中)(的)(话)(语)(权)(,很)(大)(程)(度)(上)(决)(定)(改)(革)(的)(成)(败)(。
  (南)(都)(评)(论)(记)(者)(张)(天)(潘)(整)(理)()
)


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