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一本书看懂新结构经济学那些事儿

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2020年02月22日 18:29:19
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(从)(20世)(纪)(80年)(代)(开)(始)(,经)(济)(学)(界)(便)(开)(始)(反)(思)(结)(构)(主)(义)(政)(策)(失)(败)(的)(原)(因)(,由)(此)(催)(生)(了)(发)(展)(经)(济)(学)(的)(第)(二)(波)(思)(潮)(——新)(自)(由)(主)(义)(,主)(张)(按)(“华)(盛)(顿)(共)(识)(”,以)(“休)(克)(疗)(法)(”推)(行)(私)(有)(化)(、市)(场)(化)(、自)(由)(化)(等)(激)(进)(的)(改)(革)(措)(施)(,建)(立)(像)(发)(达)(国)(家)(那)(样)(的)(市)(场)(经)(济)(体)(制)(。但)(其)(结)(果)(却)(是)(使)(众)(多)(发)(展)(中)(国)(家)(经)(济)(面)(临)(崩)(溃)(,经)(济)(增)(长)(速)(度)(较)(之)(前)(缓)(慢)(,危)(机)(发)(生)(较)(之)(前)(还)(更)(为)(频)(仍)(。
第)(二)(次)(世)(界)(大)(战)(后)(,亚)(洲)(“四)(小)(龙)(”和)(日)(本)(是)(少)(数)(追)(赶)(上)(发)(达)(国)(家)(的)(成)(功)(经)(济)(体)(。从)(20世)(纪)(60年)(代)(开)(始)(,亚)(洲)(“四)(小)(龙)(”开)(始)(推)(行)(出)(口)(导)(向)(战)(略)(,重)(点)(发)(展)(传)(统)(的)(劳)(动)(密)(集)(型)(加)(工)(业)(,并)(利)(用)(工)(资)(优)(势)(承)(接)(发)(达)(国)(家)(转)(移)(过)(来)(的)(劳)(动)(密)(集)(型)(产)(业)(,吸)(引)(外)(国)(资)(金)(和)(技)(术)(。当)(时)(的)(主)(流)(理)(论)(认)(为)(,实)(行)(这)(种)(发)(展)(战)(略)(的)(经)(济)(体)(将)(永)(远)(落)(后)(于)(发)(达)(国)(家)(,但)(它)(们)(却)(实)(现)(了)(经)(济)(的)(快)(速)(腾)(飞)(,成)(为)(追)(赶)(上)(发)(达)(国)(家)(的)(新)(兴)(工)(业)(化)(经)(济)(体)(。
20世)(纪)(80年)(代)(,中)(国)(、越)(南)(、柬)(埔)(寨)(等)(社)(会)(主)(义)(国)(家)(启)(动)(改)(革)(,采)(取)(的)(是)(一)(种)(务)(实)(的)(渐)(进)(式)(的)(双)(轨)(制)(,即)(对)(原)(有)(违)(反)(比)(较)(优)(势)(的)(大)(型)(国)(有)(企)(业)(继)(续)(给)(予)(转)(型)(期)(的)(保)(护)(补)(贴)(,同)(时)(放)(开)(传)(统)(的)(、受)(抑)(制)(的)(劳)(动)(密)(集)(型)(轻)(工)(业)(的)(准)(入)(,并)(设)(立)(经)(济)(特)(区)(和)(工)(业)(园)(,改)(善)(基)(础)(设)(施)(和)(营)(商)(环)(境)(,因)(势)(利)(导)(促)(其)(发)(展)(。当)(时)(的)(主)(流)(理)(论)(认)(为)(,这)(种)(双)(轨)(制)(是)(最)(糟)(糕)(的)(转)(型)(方)(式)(,但)(是)(这)(些)(国)(家)(却)(在)(转)(型)(中)(取)(得)(了)(稳)(定)(和)(快)(速)(的)(发)(展)(。
迄)(今)(,没)(有)(一)(个)(发)(展)(中)(国)(家)(是)(根)(据)(主)(流)(理)(论)(制)(定)(的)(政)(策)(而)(实)(现)(成)(功)(发)(展)(的)(。少)(数)(取)(得)(稳)(定)(、快)(速)(发)(展)(的)(成)(功)(经)(济)(体)(,推)(行)(的)(政)(策)(以)(主)(流)(理)(论)(来)(看)(却)(是)(错)(误)(的)(。新)(结)(构)(经)(济)(学)(试)(图)(从)(发)(展)(中)(、转)(型)(中)(国)(家)(自)(身)(的)(成)(败)(经)(验)(来)(总)(结)(出)(一)(套)(新)(的)(经)(济)(发)(展)(和)(转)(型)(理)(论)(。
新)(结)(构)(经)(济)(学)(的)(核)(心)(思)(想)(是)(:每)(个)(时)(点)(上)(的)(生)(产)(力)(和)(产)(业)(结)(构)(是)(由)(该)(时)(点)(的)(要)(素)(禀)(赋)(及)(其)(结)(构)(决)(定)(的)(,作)(为)(上)(层)(建)(筑)(的)(制)(度)(安)(排)(则)(需)(与)(之)(适)(应)(。不)(同)(发)(展)(程)(度)(的)(国)(家)(,要)(素)(禀)(赋)(状)(况)(各)(异)(。在)(发)(展)(中)(国)(家)(,资)(本)(较)(为)(稀)(缺)(,劳)(动)(力)(与)(自)(然)(资)(源)(相)(对)(丰)(富)(;在)(发)(达)(国)(家)(,资)(本)(相)(对)(丰)(富)(,劳)(动)(力)(资)(源)(相)(对)(短)(缺)(。要)(素)(禀)(赋)(结)(构)(在)(每)(个)(时)(点)(是)(既)(定)(的)(,但)(随)(着)(时)(间)(的)(推)(移)(,要)(素)(禀)(赋)(及)(其)(结)(构)(将)(发)(生)(变)(化)(。新)(结)(构)(经)(济)(学)(的)(分)(析)(逻)(辑)(是)(,任)(何)(经)(济)(体)(在)(每)(一)(时)(点)(的)(要)(素)(禀)(赋)(结)(构)(是)(该)(经)(济)(体)(在)(此)(时)(点)(的)(总)(预)(算)(,而)(要)(素)(禀)(赋)(结)(构)(决)(定)(着)(要)(素)(的)(相)(对)(价)(格)(,并)(由)(此)(决)(定)(在)(那)(个)(时)(点)(具)(有)(比)(较)(优)(势)(的)(产)(业)(。
新)(结)(构)(经)(济)(学)(认)(为)(,结)(构)(主)(义)(的)(失)(败)(在)(于)(不)(了)(解)(产)(业)(结)(构)(是)(由)(要)(素)(禀)(赋)(结)(构)(内)(生)(决)(定)(的)(,误)(认)(为)(发)(展)(中)(国)(家)(市)(场)(中)(的)(资)(本)(密)(集)(型)(的)(现)(代)(化)(大)(产)(业)(发)(展)(不)(起)(来)(是)(市)(场)(失)(灵)(所)(致)(,因)(此)(主)(张)(由)(政)(府)(直)(接)(动)(员)(和)(配)(置)(资)(源)(来)(优)(先)(发)(展)(资)(本)(和)(技)(术)(密)(集)(型)(的)(现)(代)(化)(大)(产)(业)(。但)(发)(展)(中)(国)(家)(的)(资)(本)(相)(对)(短)(缺)(,在)(这)(类)(产)(业)(上)(没)(有)(比)(较)(优)(势)(,此)(类)(产)(业)(的)(企)(业)(在)(开)(放)(竞)(争)(的)(市)(场)(中)(缺)(乏)(自)(生)(能)(力)(,只)(有)(在)(政)(府)(的)(保)(护)(补)(贴)(下)(才)(能)(建)(立)(起)(来)(并)(继)(续)(生)(存)(。所)(以)(,结)(构)(主)(义)(强)(调)(的)(市)(场)(失)(灵)(,是)(对)(发)(展)(中)(国)(家)(资)(本)(密)(集)(型)(先)(进)(产)(业)(为)(何)(不)(能)(发)(展)(壮)(大)(的)(误)(判)(。新)(自)(由)(主)(义)(的)(失)(败)(则)(在)(于)(,对)(政)(府)(失)(灵)(的)(原)(因)(缺)(乏)(正)(确)(的)(认)(识)(。发)(展)(中)(国)(家)(存)(在)(的)(市)(场)(扭)(曲)(,是)(政)(府)(为)(保)(护)(赶)(超)(战)(略)(下)(缺)(乏)(自)(生)(能)(力)(的)(企)(业)(而)(存)(在)(的)(。若)(取)(消)(保)(护)(补)(贴)(,缺)(乏)(自)(生)(能)(力)(的)(企)(业)(必)(将)(倒)(闭)(,进)(而)(引)(发)(失)(业)(和)(动)(荡)(,经)(济)(发)(展)(无)(从)(谈)(起)(。同)(时)(,一)(些)(资)(本)(密)(集)(型)(现)(代)(化)(大)(产)(业)(是)(国)(防)(产)(业)(的)(基)(础)(。为)(避)(免)(社)(会)(动)(荡)(和)(损)(害)(国)(防)(安)(全)(,转)(型)(中)(国)(家)(推)(行)(了)(“华)(盛)(顿)(共)(识)(”的)(改)(革)(,取)(消)(保)(护)(补)(贴)(后)(,实)(施)(隐)(蔽)(的)(保)(护)(补)(贴)(,但)(其)(效)(率)(更)(低)(。新)(结)(构)(经)(济)(学)(为)(渐)(进)(式)(双)(轨)(制)(改)(革)(为)(何)(成)(功)(也)(提)(供)(了)(合)(理)(的)(解)(释)(:给)(予)(原)(来)(优)(先)(发)(展)(的)(产)(业)(部)(门)(中)(缺)(乏)(自)(生)(能)(力)(的)(企)(业)(以)(必)(要)(的)(保)(护)(,有)(助)(于)(维)(护)(经)(济)(和)(社)(会)(稳)(定)(;放)(开)(对)(原)(先)(受)(抑)(制)(的)(、符)(合)(比)(较)(优)(势)(部)(门)(的)(准)(入)(,有)(利)(于)(实)(现)(经)(济)(可)(持)(续)(增)(长)(。进)(而)(符)(合)(比)(较)(优)(势)(的)(部)(门)(的)(快)(速)(增)(长)(积)(累)(了)(资)(本)(,原)(先)(缺)(乏)(自)(生)(能)(力)(的)(企)(业)(逐)(渐)(获)(得)(了)(自)(生)(能)(力)(,当)(传)(统)(部)(门)(的)(企)(业)(具)(备)(自)(生)(能)(力)(时)(,再)(取)(消)(保)(护)(补)(贴)(,就)(可)(以)(实)(现)(向)(市)(场)(经)(济)(的)(过)(渡)(。
新)(结)(构)(经)(济)(学)(认)(为)(,一)(个)(经)(济)(体)(按)(要)(素)(禀)(赋)(结)(构)(的)(特)(性)(来)(发)(展)(具)(有)(比)(较)(优)(势)(的)(产)(业)(是)(经)(济)(取)(得)(稳)(定)(、快)(速)(、包)(容)(发)(展)(的)(最)(佳)(途)(径)(。企)(业)(会)(按)(要)(素)(禀)(赋)(结)(构)(所)(决)(定)(的)(比)(较)(优)(势)(来)(选)(择)(技)(术)(和)(产)(业)(的)(前)(提)(是)(要)(素)(价)(格)(必)(须)(能)(够)(充)(分)(反)(映)(各)(种)(要)(素)(的)(相)(对)(稀)(缺)(性)(,而)(这)(种)(价)(格)(体)(系)(只)(有)(在)(充)(分)(竞)(争)(的)(市)(场)(中)(才)(能)(存)(在)(,而)(所)(有)(的)(有)(效)(市)(场)(是)(按)(照)(比)(较)(优)(势)(发)(展)(经)(济)(的)(前)(提)(。随)(着)(技)(术)(的)(创)(新)(和)(产)(业)(的)(升)(级)(,硬)(的)(基)(础)(设)(施)(和)(软)(的)(制)(度)(环)(境)(必)(须)(随)(着)(产)(业)(和)(技)(术)(水)(平)(提)(高)(的)(需)(要)(而)(不)(断)(完)(善)(,因)(此)(,在)(市)(场)(经)(济)(中)(,政)(府)(必)(须)(发)(挥)(积)(极)(有)(为)(的)(作)(用)(,以)(克)(服)(在)(经)(济)(转)(型)(升)(级)(中)(必)(然)(存)(在)(的)(外)(部)(性)(以)(及)(改)(善)(硬)(的)(基)(础)(设)(施)(和)(软)(的)(制)(度)(安)(排)(的)(协)(调)(等)(市)(场)(失)(灵)(问)(题)(。
发)(展)(中)(国)(家)(软)(、硬)(基)(础)(设)(施)(普)(遍)(不)(足)(,但)(是)(,政)(府)(的)(资)(源)(和)(执)(行)(能)(力)(有)(限)(,只)(能)(针)(对)(所)(要)(发)(展)(的)(符)(合)(比)(较)(优)(势)(的)(产)(业)(的)(需)(要)(来)(完)(善)(软)(、硬)(基)(础)(设)(施)(,也)(就)(是)(政)(府)(在)(经)(济)(发)(展)(过)(程)(中)(必)(须)(针)(对)(特)(定)(产)(业)(的)(“产)(业)(政)(策)(”才)(能)(发)(挥)(“有)(为)(政)(府)(”所)(应)(该)(有)(的)(作)(用)(。从)(历)(史)(经)(验)(来)(看)(,许)(多)(产)(业)(政)(策)(是)(失)(败)(的)(,但)(是)(,尚)(没)(有)(不)(用)(产)(业)(政)(策)(而)(成)(功)(追)(赶)(发)(达)(国)(家)(的)(发)(展)(中)(国)(家)(,也)(没)(有)(不)(用)(产)(业)(政)(策)(而)(继)(续)(快)(速)(发)(展)(的)(发)(达)(国)(家)(。我)(们)(不)(能)(因)(为)(有)(些)(产)(业)(政)(策)(的)(失)(败)(而)(否)(定)(产)(业)(政)(策)(的)(必)(要)(性)(。
新)(结)(构)(经)(济)(学)(认)(为)(,绝)(大)(多)(数)(产)(业)(政)(策)(失)(败)(是)(因)(为)(政)(府)(所)(要)(支)(持)(的)(产)(业)(违)(反)(了)(比)(较)(优)(势)(,这)(些)(产)(业)(缺)(乏)(自)(生)(能)(力)(,需)(要)(政)(府)(长)(期)(的)(保)(护)(补)(贴)(,这)(就)(导)(致)(了)(资)(源)(错)(配)(,滋)(生)(了)(寻)(租)(和)(腐)(败)(行)(为)(。成)(功)(的)(产)(业)(政)(策)(应)(该)(通)(过)(因)(势)(利)(导)(使)(企)(业)(进)(入)(具)(有)(“潜)(在)(比)(较)(优)(势)(”的)(产)(业)(,这)(种)(产)(业)(符)(合)(要)(素)(禀)(赋)(结)(构)(的)(特)(性)(,要)(素)(生)(产)(成)(本)(在)(国)(际)(同)(行)(业)(中)(处)(于)(较)(低)(的)(水)(平)(。但)(在)(国)(际)(竞)(争)(中)(,由)(于)(电)(力)(、交)(通)(基)(础)(设)(施)(、金)(融)(、法)(制)(等)(软)(、硬)(基)(础)(设)(施)(不)(完)(善)(,导)(致)(了)(企)(业)(的)(交)(易)(成)(本)(和)(总)(成)(本)(太)(高)(而)(缺)(乏)(竞)(争)(力)(。产)(业)(政)(策)(的)(目)(标)(就)(是)(,通)(过)(改)(善)(基)(础)(设)(施)(、金)(融)(、法)(制)(环)(境)(等)(以)(降)(低)(交)(易)(成)(本)(,并)(给)(予)(先)(行)(企)(业)(一)(定)(的)(激)(励)(以)(补)(偿)(其)(外)(部)(性)(,将)(具)(有)(潜)(在)(比)(较)(优)(势)(的)(产)(业)(快)(速)(发)(展)(成)(为)(具)(有)(竞)(争)(优)(势)(的)(产)(业)(。
新)(结)(构)(经)(济)(学)(诞)(生)(不)(久)(,已)(得)(到)(经)(济)(理)(论)(工)(作)(者)(的)(广)(泛)(关)(注)(。呈)(现)(在)(读)(者)(面)(前)(的)(《新)(结)(构)(经)(济)(学)(思)(与)(辩)(》是)(我)(国)(发)(展)(经)(济)(学)(界)(青)(年)(学)(者)(王)(勇)(经)(多)(年)(深)(入)(思)(考)(,在)(参)(与)(学)(界)(的)(各)(种)(讨)(论)(中)(形)(成)(的)(优)(秀)(学)(术)(成)(果)(。其)(主)(要)(贡)(献)(在)(于)(:第)(一)(,运)(用)(通)(俗)(易)(懂)(的)(语)(言)(,深)(入)(地)(阐)(述)(了)(新)(结)(构)(经)(济)(学)(的)(基)(本)(思)(想)(、分)(析)(框)(架)(、核)(心)(观)(点)(及)(政)(策)(内)(涵)(,有)(助)(于)(广)(大)(经)(济)(理)(论)(工)(作)(者)(更)(加)(全)(面)(、准)(确)(地)(认)(识)(和)(看)(待)(新)(结)(构)(经)(济)(学)(;第)(二)(,提)(出)(了)(对)(新)(结)(构)(经)(济)(学)(主)(张)(的)(产)(业)(政)(策)(的)(深)(刻)(见)(解)(,并)(指)(出)(经)(济)(学)(家)(们)(应)(果)(断)(抛)(弃)(“产)(业)(政)(策)(究)(竟)(应)(不)(应)(该)(要)(”的)(意)(识)(形)(态)(纠)(缠)(,着)(力)(研)(究)(如)(何)(帮)(助)(制)(定)(和)(执)(行)(正)(确)(有)(效)(的)(产)(业)(政)(策)(;第)(三)(,总)(结)(了)(各)(类)(有)(限)(政)(府)(的)(不)(同)(内)(涵)(,阐)(释)(了)(新)(结)(构)(经)(济)(学)(中)(的)(“有)(为)(政)(府)(”的)(界)(定)(,探)(讨)(了)(新)(结)(构)(经)(济)(学)(中)(“有)(为)(政)(府)(”的)(“动)(态)(变)(迁)(”与)(“改)(革)(”内)(涵)(,分)(析)(了)(“有)(为)(政)(府)(”与)(“有)(限)(政)(府)(”的)(主)(要)(区)(别)(,澄)(清)(了)(一)(些)(学)(者)(对)(“有)(为)(政)(府)(”的)(误)(解)(;第)(四)(,分)(享)(了)(作)(者)(对)(相)(关)(经)(济)(发)(展)(问)(题)(的)(独)(到)(思)(考)(,并)(结)(合)(有)(关)(经)(济)(专)(题)(,展)(示)(了)(新)(结)(构)(经)(济)(学)(的)(分)(析)(方)(法)(。
我)(相)(信)(,展)(读)(此)(书)(对)(广)(大)(经)(济)(理)(论)(工)(作)(者)(和)(关)(心)(中)(国)(经)(济)(学)(科)(发)(展)(以)(及)(中)(国)(未)(来)(发)(展)(前)(景)(的)(广)(大)(读)(者)(大)(有)(裨)(益)(。希)(望)(更)(多)(的)(经)(济)(理)(论)(工)(作)(者)(关)(注)(中)(国)(实)(践)(,注)(重)(理)(论)(创)(新)(,为)(繁)(荣)(我)(国)(哲)(学)(社)(会)(科)(学)(贡)(献)(力)(量)(。
好)(书)(推)(荐)(
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